1. Work Out a Schedule With Your Family :
2. Designate Your Own Workspace :
3. Get Up Early – and Dive Right In :
4. Take Breaks :
5. Eliminate the Digital Distractions :
Productivity is a key to prosperity. Rise in productivity results in higher
production which has direct impact on standard of living. It reduces cost per unit and
enables reduction in sale price. It increases wages for workers and increased profit for
organisation. Higher demand creates more employment opportunities.
ii.Higher productivity leads to economic growth and social progress. Higher
productivity helps to reduce cost per piece which make product available at cheaper
rate. Thus it is beneficial for consumers. Low price increases demand of the product
which in turn increases profit of the organisation. Higher profit enables organisation
to offer higher dividend for shareholders. It increases export and increases foreign
exchange reserves of a country.
iii) Higher productivity requires elimination of waste in all forms
It is necessary
to eliminate wastage in raw material, wastage of time in case of men and machinery,
wastage of space etc. to improve productivity. Several techniques like work study,
statistical quality control, inventory control, operation research, value analysis etc. are
used to minimise wastage of resources.
(i) Planning: Work measurement data enables management to determine
manpower requirement, future requirements of equipments & machines as well
as number of machines a worker can conveniently handle and to understand start
and end time of a particular process.
(ii) Estimation of costs: Manufacturing time is required to estimate labour cost.
Similarly, indirect costs like depreciation, rent, power charges, fuel, salaries of
staff and supervisors etc. depends on time.
(iii) Cost reduction and Cost control: Work measurement data is helpful to reduce
or control cost. Efficiency can be improved if information of men, machine
utilization and time lost by men and machine is available. It provides labour
costs standards which help to control labour costs.
(iv) Basis for incentive: Work measurement data acts as basis for incentives to
prepare for standards that needs to be achieved by worker.
(v) Improvement in existing methods: Work measurement data helps to bring
improvement in existing methods by eliminating unnecessary activities those
results into waste of time.
(vi) Comparison of alternative methods: When method study gives two or more
alternatives which are equally advantageous, work measurement data helps to
select one alternative.
(vii) Sub-standard Workers: Work measurement data helps to set standards like
production per hour or per shift by worker. Management needs to take decisions
about workers like training, transfer of old workers to light jobs, action against
workers who purposely work slow, etc.
(viii) Measuring employee performances: Work measurement data is useful to
check employee performance. It enables line management to find out if
employee is making satisfactory progress, fully trained or training period should
be extended or if worker is suitable for job offered.
Techniques of Work Measurement
- Time study:
Time study is the technique of work measurement to establish time for a qualified
worker to carry out specified task under specified conditions and at defined level of
performance. Basic time study equipment consists of – a stop-watch, a study- board
and time study forms. The time study procedure consist of steps such as (i) Selection
of Job (ii) Standardization of Method (iii) Select the operator for study (iv) Recording
of details (v) Measure the duration of each element (vi) Calculating representative
time of each element (vii) Convert observed time into normal time (viii) Calculate
relaxation and other allowances (ix) Calculate Standard time. Time study can be
performed depending on the accuracy of stopwatch method, time recording machine
and motion picture camera. Time study and its application along with the procedure is
discussed in chapter 7.
- Work Sampling:
Work sampling was pioneered by L.H.C. Tippet in a British Textile Mill. It is defined
as „A technique in which a statistically competent number of instantaneous
observations are taken, over a period of time, of a group of machines, process or
workers. Each observation records what is seen to happen and the percentage of
observations recorded for a particular activity or delay is a measure of percentage of
time observed by the occurrence‟ 8
. It is a method of finding the percentage
occurrence of certain activity by statistical sampling and random observations. It is